Architectural styles and features are characteristic of each historical era. Even with the time of the Middle Ages all the buildings that have survived to this day, had a lot of differences from the buildings of another era. Buildings and buildings are characterized by their own special fashion, which, although not changing as often and unexpectedly as fashion in clothes and style, still has its own constant development. There are certain specific features in the architecture of our time. Despite the fact that even the last century has not yet become a distant history for us, since then the architecture has undergone a lot of significant changes. First of all, the main difference of modern architecture from the buildings of the past is the desire for diversity. Not only large-scale buildings, but even private houses, people want to build so that there is nothing in the world even about them similar.
No less important feature is the fact that the modern architectural delights are characterized by maximum functionality. If earlier more attention was paid to saving material resources, now with it no less attention is paid to practicality. Functionality has become the head of most projects, because modern rhythms of life require from us high mobility and productivity everywhere and always, whether we are at home or at work. If you take a good magazine on architecture, you can see for yourself that construction is less and less limited by technical conditions, and more and more attention is paid to creating a comfortable living area for a person in which he could not only spend the night, but lead a full active life.
It is not surprising that under such conditions a lot of architects and designers appeared who aspire to offer you their solutions as the only true ones. But do not fully rely on someone else's opinion. Even if the designer is the most famous, he sees the world and priorities in it in his own way, so for you his ideas will not always be relevant. For example, more and more architects claim that it is important to build a house with high ceilings for true comfort and fashion. But not if you don’t see any advantage in this, then just drop all the advice and do what your soul tells you. Only in this way can you achieve real comfort and complete satisfaction with the work done.
The fundamental provisions of the "environmental approach" allow in some cases independently to think over the design of urban interiors and their details in the current project activity system.
Recalling the specific features of various kinds of urban spaces - the complexity of functional and substantive tasks, which determines the multiplicity of forms of visual components of the environment, from buildings and structures to equipment, landscape inclusions, etc .; town planning conditionality, "non-closure" of fragments, dictating "gathering" of environmental systems, hierarchy of their structure; the relative stability of the main geometric prototypes of urban interiors, resulting from the constancy of the types of urban activities that they clothe; large sizes that determine the specificity of perception and methods of shaping the appearance; dynamism of development and algorithms for the operation of environmental objects - it can be noted that they all constitute two integrated series: features related to the architectural and spatial characteristics (dimension, structure, geometry and composition structure, etc.); and non-architectural conditions and parameters - principles of operation, technology, climatic factors, dynamics of functions, specifics of the realization of the synthesis of arts, etc.
Both series of problems pose their tasks to designers, form their own system of ideas and qualification requirements. Answers to the first circle of questions lie within the architectural profession, are solved due to its development, because here the designer uses the usual arsenal of architecture itself - the properties of space, architectural forms of buildings and structures, although some techniques and knowledge of "related" specialties invade here. For example, the design of ordinary equipment, lighting principles, etc. The second round requires an in-depth mastery of special knowledge — ergonomics, lighting engineering, landscape science, design and production of objects that fill the environment — and leads to specific design training, shaping a world view based on a comprehensive account of consumer and technological characteristics of the environment. Exactly so - on a sharp opposition, delimitation of architectural and design activities - the practice of forming the urban environment was built until recently.
However, life has shown the inferiority of this kind of "departmental" - in a modern urban environment, either the compositional whole, or the accuracy of the detail, the comfort, the quality of the implementation of the process suffers. The specificity of designing environmental objects, especially on the scale that urban planning and urban reconstruction has acquired today, demanded professional strengthening of a team of designers engaged in this field. Society has needed a mediator between spatial (architectural) and object (design) design, a specialist who can skillfully reconcile the constantly emerging conflicts between the formation of the environment and the development of its processes and means.
So today a new architectural specialty has appeared - an architect-designer who is entrusted to conduct artistic design of the full complex of components of the architectural environment (urban, rural, park, etc.), tied into an "ensemble" subject-spatial unity. Nowadays, this profession is becoming established, higher education institutions of the country are looking for the most appropriate forms of education, form a concept, model of a new type of specialist, without which it is impossible to plan the set and volume of academic disciplines, the criteria for quality control of the knowledge and skills obtained. The guiding lines in this difficult work are the provisions of the environmental approach, which analyzes the special contribution of the designer and architect to the formation of the environment, looking for ways to synthesize them.
Based on the principles of the environmental approach, the creative method of the architect designer allows to combine thoroughness, comprehensive validity of final decisions, peculiar to the design, with heightened attention to the ideological content characteristic of architecture, to combine the understanding of the whole as a space with the idea of it . With this approach, all the above provisions and recommendations not only retain their effectiveness, although they are deliberately limited to the range of architectural problems, but also become a kind of "open system" of principled installations to which, with appropriate reflection, methods and installations of other areas of design activity can join, forming objects of the urban environment.
But it is this approach — not bound up by canons and traditions, but based on knowledge of the inner laws of creativity — that today's society needs, which, without neglecting the risks and propriety, experiments in search of new forms of its existence, then intuitively returns to aesthetic values brought up by previous generations .
There are a lot of problems in our life, and most of them need an immediate solution, which is vividly illustrated by the materials of the second book of the textbook.
Let's make a reservation - in this case we are talking about long-term development processes (visual transformation associated with the reconstruction or depreciation of an object), and not about the "returnable" dynamics and, all the more, mobility (mobility in space) of the basic environmental components, fences and tablet, nor were they seductive. Recall - none of the utopian projects that dreamed about the fundamental variability of the cities of the future, supersaturated with electronics, the latest forms of visual communications, new means of transportation, etc. - was not implemented. But their general spirit of restlessness and unrestrained experiment turned out to be embodied in such ensembles as the Bobur plateau, the world exhibitions of the Expo, and the construction of Japanese masters who changed their ideas about the relationship between statics and dynamics in the architectural environment.
While examples of the complete variability of the spatial base in the environment are quite small, and most of them are single-way transformable structures or the underlined mobility of filling elements or equipment of an environmental object, at best, the light-dynamic lighting of "stable" ensembles. Apparently, the "pure" dynamics of environmental compositions today is feasible only in amusement rides or exotic "island cities", built to the needs of the thrill-seeking public.